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351: LArge genuine knapped axe. Stray find. Private collection
352: Genuine polished axe (neolithic). The butt of the axe is missing, only the cutting extremity remains. Stray find. Private collection
353: Heavily patinated acheulean biface. Stray find. Private collection
354: Making a pressure flaker: holly handle and 8mm copper rod... once assembled they will make a tool for pressure flaking
355: Making a pressure flaker: the holly handle was drilled (7cm deep) and slightly grounded
356: Making a pressure flaker: the copper rod has to be shaped by hammering. Do not use a file since hammering will harden the tip. Here the hammerstone and the anvil that will be used
357: Making a pressure flaker: the copper rod is forced into the handle with a large quartzite hammerstone
358: Making a pressure flaker: hammering the point is mandatory. Do not use a file since hammering hardens the metal tip. The sharper the tip is, the more efficient it will be. Resharpen as often as necessary
359: Making a pressure flaker: here is the finished tool: total length 52 cm, handle is 44 cm
360: Making a pressure flaker: a leather pad protects the hand: this is mandatory unless you want to get stitches in the hospital
361: Making a pressure flaker: the copper tip shows its efficiency on a blade segment. Flakes scars are clearly visible
362: Making a pressure flaker: glass is very easily worked by pressure because it is much softer than flint but breaks with the same rules. Here an arrowhead preform
363: Making a pressure flaker: flint/jasper arrowhead made with the copper tipped pressure flaker we just built
364: Parasite flake typical of hammerstone percussion (top arrow) on the bulb scar, and its negative on the bulb of the large spall (bottom arrow)
365: Bulb scar caused by hammerstone percussion. The typical parasite flake (upper arrow) and the hackles that point toward the impact point (right arrow) are clearly visible
366: Limestone inclusions (cortex) in a flint block. Both arrows point to the same inclusion that goes through the block
367: 2 simple and double ridge blades, with cortex remnants, on a large block of Bergerac flint. The upper arrow points to the sub-cortical area of the block
368: Simple ridge blade (top) and double ridge blade (bottom). platforms are oriented to the left. The upper blade tip was turned into a dihedral burin
369: Close view of the active part of a dihedral burin. The arrow shows one of the two burins (the same shape is created on the other side. Both burins meet on top and create a dihedral burin. Such scars were created by burin blows on a blade.
370: Rejuvination tablet refittied on its core blade. Arrows show the point of impact. Such flakes are made to reshape the striking platform on a blade core.
371: Typical conchoidal fracture on an obsidian spall. Note the wavy fracture lines on the scar
372: Crested blade with its scar on the blade core (black outline). This core also shows a refitting of a rejuvination tablet struck to reshape the core platform.
373: Active part of a dihedral burin (top arrow) and hackles on the blade side (right arrow). From the hackles orientation, one can understand that the blade platform is.... to the left side (not visible)
374: Spalling a big tabular flint. The side of the bloc has received alternate percussions with hammerstones (pronounced bulb scars), creating a wavy ridge, or crest. Every other percussion is blown from the previous flake scar.
375: Genuine prehistoric flakes. Stray finds. The patina is the surface alteration (white dots). Note the recent flake (bottom arrow) showing the inner color of the flint. The bladelet fragment on top shows spots of iron oxyd, probably due to modern agriculture machines (top arrow).