|1||In a few words:
Short video improvised while I asked Bernard if he could knap a few nice obsidian slabs for me so I could turn them into bifaces. Extremely fragile and razor-sharp, obsidian is a superb material, but hard to spall because of its being fragile. This here bloc has many fractures which make big spalls hard to come.
|Duration: 01:45 Displays: 5965|
|6||In a few words:
Now the blade preform is finished, but there are still many imperfections on it. It will be difficult to get nice long and regular pressure flakes out of such a rough preform. This is the reason why I fully polish the preform: flake over grinding will then be much more efficient because the surfaces will be perfectly convex.
|Duration: 01:11 Displays: 5606|
|7||In a few words:
I crush small flint flakes on a big sandstone rock. Then I add water so as to obtain a ""grinding soup"" that should increase the efficiency of sandstone. The rest is just a matter of time (mostly)... and muscles ! It took 2 h30 to polish the blade (faces and bevels for pressure platforms on the sides)
|Duration: 01:49 Displays: 5274|
|8||In a few words:
With a copper-rod pressure flaker (chalcolithic period) I retouch by pressure the whole first face of the blade, to create long and parallel scars on it and serrations on the edges. I start with the point, with tiny flakes, that get longer and longer as I proceed toward the base of the blade.
|Duration: 04:11 Displays: 6353|
|9||In a few words:
The first half of face 1 is now finished, so it's time to pressure flake the opposite edge. This time I start from the base and proceed toward the point untill the surface dosen't show any trace of polishing and is fully retouched. A few tweaks on the edges with a quartzite stone and I'm finished with this face.
|Duration: 05:58 Displays: 4192|
|12||In a few words:
Is it easier or not to use sawed slabs for making flint blades or points ? In my opinion it isn't. Working on those slabs requires greater efforts than knapping a spall. Flint loves convexity and the surfaces are here flat ! The positive point is that a flint nodule will give more preforms if sawn rather than spalled... but I still prefer knapping a spall with an antler billet.
|Duration: 05:34 Displays: 3890|
|13||In a few words:
Flint blades micro denticulated edges are extremely efficient for cutting soft materials such as flesh. They actually work like a saw does. Because flint is much harder than common steel, it is important to use such knives on a wooden board so as not to damage your plates. Yummy !
|Duration: 01:45 Displays: 7681|
|14||In a few words:
The handle is made out of an antler. First I need to drill a hole in the for the blade tang. Then I have to create two deep cuts on the handle edges so that the shoulders of the blade can rest in them. Hafting of the blade will require a pine-tree pitch & beeswax glue.
|Duration: 07:38 Displays: 3185|
|17||In a few words:
Rabbit-skin strips have boiled for many hours, thus creating a slimy collagene glue. I extract fibers from a tendon, soak them in the glue and wrap them around the blade and the handle. It will then dry for 24 hours. It took more than 4 hours to make this knife, but it definitely was worth it...
|Duration: 02:44 Displays: 3558|
|18||In a few words:
First I make a drill: a small burin spall inserted in a split wooden stick... Then I use a dihedral burin to make a small scratch on the reindeer sliver so that my drill won't slip. A sort of pre-hole. Rubbing the stick between my palms, I drill both faces, little by little (total duration: 12 minutes). Then I start shaping the needle with a burin...
|Duration: 08:38 Displays: 2554|
|19||In a few words:
To sharpen the needle and work on it I make a burin with a blade.. and the work begins. I then use a wet millstone (sandtone) to polish the needle's head and its body. With a second blade, I make a saw so I can cut one of the sliver's end, then sand it untill it gets sharp. Another little burin work and the needle is finished, ready for sewing.
|Duration: 12:09 Displays: 1479|
|20||In a few words:
As tough as it may be, an antler needle will not go through such a thick piece of leather, so I must make holes first. With a small flake that I retouch so it becomes sharp, it should be easier. The thread I use here is made of sinew fibers. Once the holes are made, it's heasy to sew.
|Duration: 05:25 Displays: 1365|
|21||In a few words:
To make a harpoon we need to break a section of antler in order to detach a slab from it and shape it. First I saw the antler before breaking it with a big hammerstone, then scrape the sides to cut a slab from it, with a dihedral burin. Later on I'll split the antler by inserting a thick flint blade and by hammering on it (not the easiest part !) I should have used deer antlers instead of reindeer antlers for this[...]
|Duration: 03:19 Displays: 2169|
|22||In a few words:
In order to get an oval shape, I saw the extremities of the slab. The saw is obtained by making serrations on a flint blade (it works GREAT !). I've chosen a cortical blade so as not to cut myself. Then I grind the slab on a wet sandstone... I should have used deer antlers instead of reindeer antlers for this experimentation because there weren't any reindeers in south of France during the azilian.
|Duration: 03:01 Displays: 1878|
|23||In a few words:
The outline of the harpoon is now correct, so I trace the barbs with a pen, then cut them with a flint saw, on each face. Later on I'll scrape the cuts with a dihedral burin. In order to get a perfect sharpness of the barbs, I'll scrape them with a small burin. The final step will be the drilling of an oval hole, near the base of the harpoon. The full operating chain of this harpoon can be seen in the TECHNIQUES[...]
|Duration: 04:04 Displays: 2120|
|24||In a few words:
This is a real piece of work since this technique is definitely tricky. Out of the blue the webmaster asked me to knap a Levallois point, and without any rehearsal we shot this video. From a Levallois core I drive 3 flakes: 2 overshot side flakes and 1 recursive before I can actually knap the point off. Neanderthal men have mastered this technique for centuries, but it still is a very difficult one for most knappers[...]
|Duration: 07:59 Displays: 8550|
|25||In a few words:
The very first video recorded by Bernard and Cayoo. Once upon a time there were a cameraman who was commenting and a flintknapper who was saying harsh words.... A first levallois point is knapped off the core in one minute... not perfect though. A second attempt only creates a pseudo-point and the third try totally destroys the prepared platform. This kind a debitage is quite tricky and challenging.
|Duration: 04:04 Displays: 4828|
|27||In a few words:
One of the many method for creating a Levallois point is to drive 3 flakes off the core (one in the middle to create the hafting scar, 2 overshot flakes on the sides to create the triangular ridges), then the point itself is knocked out of the core with a single blow of a hammerstone. Because of a power outage we weren't able to complete the whole movie, but you may watch a refitting of the flakes and points...
|Duration: 07:23 Displays: 3105|
|31||In a few words:
It is necessary to carefully shape and prepare the crested blade (the first to come off a core) because of the ridges it will leaves on the core... Those ridges will serve as a guide for the next blades. The crested ridge, though wavy, has to be relatively regular and straight. The regular convexity of its outline (its profile) should also be checked in order to avoid step-fractures or overshot blades...
|Duration: 01:03 Displays: 2068|
|32||In a few words:
Once it is prepared, the crested blade is probably the easiest blade to knap. It is in itself useless and is rarely used as a tool. But the negative and the two ridges it leaves on the core are the guide of the next blades... and those blades may be used. As I work you may hear Cayoo's accalamtions... The poor webmaster is always very enthusiastic because laminary work is for him an utopy.
|Duration: 00:18 Displays: 1941|
|33||In a few words:
It is often neglected, though rubbing the platform prior to percussion is absolutely fundamental. For an unexperienced eye, rubbing and carefully removing such tiny flake on the platform may seem useless, but they actually lead to perfect debitage as opposed to hinged or step fracture. It is always better to spend more time preparing your platform than striving to repair your errors afterwards on a carefully[...]
|Duration: 01:57 Displays: 2109|
|34||In a few words:
There are actually 3 keys to a perfect blade debitage: convexity, bending and flaking angle... When you get these 3 parameters and when your percussion is precise, blades come off the core with an astonishing regularity. See of carefully I prepare my platform before striking it: shaping and rubbing are the keys to get a perfect platform angle.
|Duration: 01:57 Displays: 2558|
|35||In a few words:
Filmed by a class student. The main problem beginners flintknappers are confronted to in laminary work is anticipation. It is mandatory to create VOLUMES in order to knap many blades off a core. Some blades are even knapped, not for themselves, but for the negatives they leave on the core (thus creating volumes). Later on this allows you to obtain blades with desired characteristics.
|Duration: 12:55 Displays: 2726|
|36||In a few words:
How to create the crested blade, the main platform, the convexity and others characteristics of a typical blade core ? Here are a fex hints that may help beginner knappers. I start creating a convexity on a side of the core with bifacial flaking. Then I knock this crest off... Every scar negative creates a volume, and every volume can be a blade, if proper platform is prepared....
|Duration: 15:22 Displays: 2196|
|37||In a few words:
Laminary work on 'livre de beurre' cores are highly tricky but it allows to create VERY long blades, like the ones used on the Charavines knifes, for example. The Bergerac flint bloc I use has many inclusions on its convex side, so I'll have to use its concave part (which is not the easiest one to work on, even if the flint is there of a much better quality).
|Duration: 01:25 Displays: 1687|
|38||In a few words:
I create an oval core with a regularly convex surface. Using the flakes negatives on the lower part of the core as platforms, I create a good convexity on the upper side. I use a punch or direct percussion. The smoother the core, the longer the blades may be. Though a bit different, this knapping technique is similar to shaping a Levallois core (using platforms under the core to create an upper convexity).
|Duration: 08:04 Displays: 1396|
|39||In a few words:
Now the core is almost ready, but I still have to create the platform: I litterally 'behead' the core, which gives an ideal angle to it, then I carefully shape my platform. I use a deer stag punch and a hammerstone... but it doesn't come as good as I hoped.
|Duration: 02:45 Displays: 1334|
|40||In a few words:
I've been able to fix the platform and the percussion point (it must have a tiny ridge, oriented in the same axis as the core) and now I thoroughly grind it... Those micro flakes I drive off the core, the carefull grinding can look useless on such a huge core, but they actually are the secret to get long blades !
|Duration: 02:15 Displays: 1181|
|41||In a few words:
After 15 minutes of carefull shaping, the core looks perfect to me... I show every sides of the core to the camera before knapping the first blade, which breaks in 3 parts ! At least the fracture drove all the way to the extremity of the core. I then prepare a second striking platform, a new percussion point and manage to get a good second blade.
|Duration: 03:05 Displays: 1587|
|42||In a few words:
I prepare again another platform (not filmed), knap a third blade, but this one is shorter than I expected: lack of preparation of the core.... The former blades negatives have created nice ridges that should help drive the fracture front and get me to knap a nice fourth blade. After having carefully prepared the platform, I finally manage to drive a perfect blade, thin and as long as the core.
|Duration: 04:07 Displays: 1625|
|43||In a few words:
I've chosen a tabular flint from which I remove big flakes. Those flakes negatives create convexities on the two faces, thus initiating a biface blank. I leave more matter on the part that will become the base and start shaping the point... A detailled operating chain of the mousterian biface with 89 commented pictures is visible in the TECHNIQUES section, sub-section OPERATING CHAINS.
|Duration: 12:55 Displays: 13479|
|44||In a few words:
On a raw blade, I create two slight convexities converging on the the point. This is mostly aimed to reduce the tool's width. A first blow leaves a flat surface with 90° angles. Here is a burin, very efficient for scraping soft materials (bone, antler, wood). A second blow creates a second burin on the other face of the blade, but also a a chisel point, very efficient to cut out slivers from a bone or an antler[...]
|Duration: 04:21 Displays: 1163|
|45||In a few words:
The first pictures show the core from which I'll drive the blades off. This bipolar nucleus allows short blades to come off the core before they get convex. I chose a straight double ridged blade and I started retouching one of its sides with a hard hammerstone on an anvil (boxwood). The point will get stronger due to its trapezoid section. On the second part (see next video), I'll make a finer retouch by pressure[...]
|Duration: 01:53 Displays: 1348|
|46||In a few words:
This kind of scraper is very easily made: on a Levallois flake (driven off the core with a hammerstone) you create an abrupt retouch so as to make 2 convexities that turn into a point. The outline is that of a boat-hull. Such a tool is quite efficient for scraping soft materials such as bone, wood, leather... Successive resharpenings will have it lose it symetry.
|Duration: 02:25 Displays: 1362|
|48||In a few words:
A short and rather thin flake (5-7 mm) is pressure flaked on both faces with a copper-tipped flaker. The flake then gets thinner and its outline is shaped as a rough triangle. A second serie of retouches on the base creates the tang and the barbs. The whole process took about 30 minutes.
|Duration: 13:54 Displays: 13127|
|49||In a few words:
I start working on this 10 cm long flint blade with a hard hammerstone (not filmed), then, with an antler pressure flaker I start flaking the top side of this blade. this top side should later on bear no trace of debitage, so the flakes have to be realy covering. Once it has become necessary to sharpen my flaker, I make a burin, shape the point of my flaker, and go back to pressure flaking this solutrean shouldered[...]
|Duration: 16:35 Displays: 1952|
|50||In a few words:
Now that the blade has a backed side, I'm using a pressure flaker made of an antler tip. With this tool I can make a more regular side, driving small and porecise flakes off the side of the point. The whole pressure flaking was not filmed because it wasn't very fascinating....
|Duration: 00:42 Displays: 1824|
|51||In a few words:
Nature hates vacuum... and straight lines ! If an atlatl raises the power of your arm, the kinetic energy won't be stored and released by the dart if it is too stiff. Thus, when shot, atlatl darts incredibly bend and litterally spring off the atlatl's hook. The first meters of a dart's flight are quite wavy, before it straightens its course.... and still hit the aimed point.
|Duration: 00:03 Displays: 5473|
|52||In a few words:
With a flint scraper, I scratch the internal and fluffy part of a tree-mushroom and make a small heap with this ""dust"". Just above this heap, I hit a marcassite nodule with a flint blade: this creates sparks that lit the mushroom dust. Then I nestle the incendescent dust in a handfull of straw, make a few movements to create an oxygen flux... and the fire starts. Easy, uh ?
|Duration: 03:46 Displays: 6087|
|53||In a few words:
The target center is worth 10 points, but since many competitors hit it, it was necessary to make a distinction between the center mark and the exact center of the target. So the very center of an ISAC target features a 1 inch dot, called ""X"". A very good atlatlist may score 90 points, but a marksman will make a 90XXXX (same score but 4 times in the very center).
|Duration: 00:25 Displays: 4980|
|54||In a few words:
Linden-tree barks, after been soaked in water, beaten and dried out are a good material for making strings. I twist two ribbons of bark clockwise (or counter-clockwise, it's the same) so that they naturally wrap one on to the other. By inserting new ribbons I can make longer pieces in order to obtain a usefull and long enough string. With several strings twisted together we may even make a very resistant cord...
|Duration: 04:44 Displays: 3215|
|55||In a few words:
During the class of march 2007, students tried atlatl shooting. At first I told them the basics and then shot two datrs, as a demonstration. The first student tried, but at the very moment he was releasing the dart, he glanced at the two chicken that passed before him.. and the dart ALWAYS follows your look. Luckily, he missed them... but that was a close shot !
|Duration: 01:47 Displays: 824|
|56||In a few words:
Raw and dried out sinews are heavily beaten between two rocks to crush them. Their color changes from dark yellow to white... Fibers begin to part while beating goes on. When fibers are enough separate, it's easy (or so should be !) to pull them out. And there you get the perfect material for making ligatures or sinew-glue. I use ostrich sinew which are longer than ow sinews (so I get longer fibers).
|Duration: 02:09 Displays: 2727|
|57||In a few words:
This video was made during a class... students appear with their authorisation. Here is a brand new technique that allows a hunter to kill both a deer (with the dart) AND a mole (with the atlat) with a single shot. With such a gifted hunter the community is sure to always get plenty of fresh flesh all year long !
|Duration: 00:09 Displays: 2483|
|58||In a few words:
2 days of work to make my very first axe. the stone is directly inserted in the handle, made out of a chestnut tree branch. Very proud of it, I decide to try it out... on a small tree (let's not be too greedy !). Exactly 17 seconds later the handle splits !!!!! So much for my axe ! Sorry for pronouncing the most famous word of french language....
|Duration: 00:34 Displays: 2894|
|60||In a few words:
Cartoon made with the key-images of a video. Bernard shows its movement in slow-motion. Note how the right foot barely moves. The energy is given by: - the body's gravity center that shifts from the right to the left foot, during one single step - the rotation of the shoulders - the forward movement of the elbow - and finally by a rapid twist of the wrist. The green line is the atlat's course.
|Duration: 00:07 Displays: 3293|